We conclude that large landslides and their cumulated volume are sensitive to local rates of tectonic deformation, and discriminate the deformation of the single fault segments that dissect the Peloritani range. Our findings are a direct test of landscape evolution models that predict higher rates of landslide activity near active faults. Landslides contribute to dismantle active mountain belts Burbank et al. Landscape evolution models predict higher rates of landslide erosion near faults Densmore et al.
Here, we investigate the role of active normal faults in controlling the distribution and size of landslides in the Peloritani range, one of the fastest uplifting areas in the Mediterranean region Doglioni et al. By integrating new and existing geomorphological and geological information on the location and size of normal faults and landslides, we observe the association between landslides, recent active normal faults and historical earthquakes, and we investigate the role of the active faults in controlling the size, geographical distribution and clustering of landslides in the active range.
Categoria: STORIA SCOZZESE/ Scottish history
The contractional architecture was modified by normal faults related to the opening of the Messina Straits Bonini et al. The range underwent important uplift in the Quaternary, with an average rate of 1. Recent faults Catalano et al.
In our km 2 study area terrain is mountainous with elevation ranging from sea level to m. Ephemeral streams draining into the Ionian Sea are shorter and steeper than those draining into the Tyrrhenian Sea. Metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, Paleozoic to Recent in age, crop out in the area Carbone et al. A geological map of the Messina Straits at scale APAT, , and the review of prior geological and geomorphological studies Ghisetti, ; Giunta et al.
We interpreted black and white stereoscopic aerial photographs flown in and The old photographs were taken at a nominal scale, when the extent and density of the forests were reduced compared with , and significant urbanization and human modification of the landscape had not started. This facilitated the recognition of large mass movements and sackungs, including features that were subdued, partially dismantled by erosion and other failures.
In the old photographs, fault lines appeared distinct and continuous, and were simple to identify. However, photographic quality of the old images was not homogenous, limiting the systematic detection and mapping of small features. The photographs were taken at a nominal scale, and were of better quality than the old images. For these reasons the recent photographs allowed for a more accurate mapping of small features, and were instrumental for mapping failures occured after The errors are typical of landslide inventory maps Guzzetti et al.
The distinction was not made for shallow failures. To evaluate the uncertainty associated to the estimation of V L from A L , we repeated the calculations using the relationships proposed by Larsen et al.
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Use of different relationships resulted in differences that do not affect the interpretation Table 1. We do not have information on the age of the landslides. Based on their morphological appearance McCalpin, , the height of the slopes where large landslides were mapped, and the Holocene estimated uplift rates in the study area 1. However, we cannot exclude that some of the largest landslides are older.
Interpretation of the old aerial photographs, aided by the analysis of the geological map APAT, , allowed mapping fault strands in the length range 1. Anomalies and knick points produced by landslides and local lithological changes were excluded from the analysis. Visual interpretation of the old photographs also allowed mapping facets in the footwall of the normal faults, with area in the range 1.
Given the geological and morphological complexity of the area, not all the facets were well defined, and simple to identify. We acknowledge that this has introduced uncertainty in the analysis. To evaluate the quality of the fault map, we compared statistics of the strike of the faults in our map and in the geological map of the Messina Straits APAT, Along the profiles we identified breaks in slope in correspondence to the mapped faults, and we measured visually in a GIS the height of the bedrock escarpments.
We excluded topographic breaks caused by local lithological anomalies or landslides.
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We assumed that the height of the escarpment along the fault was a measure of the throw Ganas et al. The measured throws are lower estimates of the vertical fault displacements, because i the depth to bedrock in the hanging wall was unknown, ii erosion may have lowered the uplifted footwall block, iii a sedimentary wedge of an unknown thickness may have deposited on the down dropped fault block covering it partially or totally Tsoudoulos et al. In the study area, 5. This is typical of tectonically active landscapes Guzzetti et al. The size of the fault facets, a proxy for the size of the throw of the associated faults Strak et al.
The size of the kernel was selected to capture general topographic variations rather than local topographic features. Considering the known variation of the relationship around the central tendency, we calculated minimum and maximum values for the slip rates. We further note that our point T F measurements are in agreement with measurements obtained from geological cross sections for the same faults at about the same locations Carbone et al. For each fault we divided T F by the minimum slip rate for the fault obtained using the approach proposed by dePolo and Anderson Results indicate fault ages in the range 0.
The result confirms that the mapped faults are recent in age, and have controlled the evolution of the landscape, increasing topographic relief and contributing to landsliding, in the past 0. To study the dependence of large landslides on faults, we analysed the geographic distribution of landslides size and fault throw across and along the Peloritani range.
We drew the profiles along the divides to avoid intersecting landslide escarpments that would have altered the T F measurements. The short faults of the SPFS have increased relative relief and rock fracturing, favouring the formation of large landslides. The evidence suggests that V LT is not related to a specific fault system e.
EPFS , but it depends on the presence of active faults, arranged in one or more fault systems. Overall, we explain the geographical association between large landslides and large faults observing that the large faults have increased the topographic relief, amplifying locally the geometric conditions that favour the formation of landslides. Large faults have also disturbed larger volumes of rocks, and the mechanical weakening of the rocks has favoured the formation of larger landslides.
Our study area bounds to the northwest the Messina Straits graben, an area characterized by historical seismicity Valensise and Pantosti, ; Rovida et al. The seismic record lists moderate to strong earthquakes in the period — in or near the Messina Straits. The strongest earthquakes occurred a few kilometres offshore the Ionian coast, with moderate earthquakes onshore. Although we do not know the triggers of the single landslides in our inventory, we note the geographical concurrence of large landslides and high seismicity along the east side of the Peloritani range.
We further observe that only six moderate 4.
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The abundance of large landslides near major Quaternary faults suggests that ground acceleration, possibly enhanced by local amplification phenomena, contributed to the initiation and development of large landslides in the study area Sleep, The 28 December , 7. However, Comerci et al. In the eastern part of the Peloritani range a clear association exists between large landslides and normal faults. This is demonstrated by the geographical distribution of A LT and V LT that increase almost systematically where the throws of the normal faults are higher, and where local relief is large.
We expect rock weakening caused by repeated earthquakes to be more intense and effective along active faults that exhibit large throws, where the deformation is largest. At these locations, ground motion caused by earthquakes may also be enhanced by topographic and structural amplification. This is evidence that large slope movements and their cumulated volumes are sensitive to local rates of tectonic deformation, and discriminate the cumulated deformation of individual fault segments inside the complex fault systems dissecting the Peloritani range.
Inspection of landslide maps for the east side of the Messina Straits, in Calabria, confirms the association between large landslides and normal faults Goswami et al.
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Since there is nothing peculiar or unique in the type of the landslides and the normal faults in our area, or in the Messina Straits, we hypothesize that the same may occur in similar extensional settings in the Mediterranean e. Our work extends the dependency between bedrock landslides not only seismically induced on active tectonics to an extensional setting, and to significantly longer time scales, from historical to Quaternary. Analysis of the results of an accurate mapping of landslides, normal faults and their facets in the eastern Peloritani range, northeast Sicily, Italy, and of geological and seismic information for the same area, allows for the following specific and general considerations.
In the study area, one of the fastest uplifting areas in the Mediterranean Doglioni et al. Our mapping revealed a clear geographical association between large bedrock landslides and recent active normal faults related to the opening of the Messina Straits Bonini et al. The faults, 0. In the area, the distribution of the landslide material also matches the geographical pattern of the local historical seismicity Valensise and Pantosti, ; Rovida et al. We visit some of the places and people who inspire Nes in the area: local farmers serving wine, a modernized former tomato factory, a vineyard, Ceramiche San Giorgio's workshop by the sea.
The special Italian spirit penetrates all the places, putting imagination and creativity into fluctuations. Filmed, cut and produced by Kim Dang Trong in Music by Ejnar Kanding. Video af Ejnar Kanding. Torsdag d. Musikken er komponeret af Ejnar Kanding. The music is Composed by Ejnar Kanding. Colori Nomadi is italian for nomadic colors and one of the best ways to describe Nes Lerpas work in one expression. Read more about him at neslerpa. Offentliggjort den Canzone 2 is a song for violin solo and live electronics.
The beautiful and intimate is in focus. It might be a lullaby. Nes Lerpa created the original paintings. Photo montage from of Ceramic sculptures by Nes Lerpa placed in nature - a play with colours and juxtapositions, vibrant situations created by Morten Top, Tonny Nybirk and Nes Lerpa.
Music: Ejnar Kanding. An exhibition in the ancient prison beneath the town hall palace in a small town in the Colli Piacentini wine district. The intense atmosfere is created in collaboration with young architects, wine growers and the painter. Video: Giulia Ripa, Two exhibitions connected with a funicular Railway.
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A barok church with a combination of big banners, a few small paintings and ceramics. The ceramic museum situated on the ancient Piazza with ceramic sculptures and plates flanked by long narrow canvases. This double-show expresses contrasts, unity and transparency. A new production area has been built Spring To celebrate the opening we present the intense, colourful and expressive works of the Danish artist Nes Lerpa together with the wonderful wood sculptures by Margret Lafontaine.